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General Information: Alkane Names & Functional Groups

 

Alkane Names
Primary, Secondary, Tertiary & Quaternary Carbons
Common Functional Groups
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Alkane Names:

 Number of carbons (n)

 Name

Formula ( CnH2n+2 )

 1

 methane

CH4

 2

 ethane

C2H6

 3

 propane

C3H8

 4

 butane

C4H10

 5

 pentane

C5H12

 6

 hexane

C6H14

 7

 heptane

C7H16

 8

 octane

C8H18

 9

 nonane

C9H20

 10

decane 

C10H22

 11

 undecane

 C11H24

 12

 dodecane

C12H26

 13

 tridecane

C13H28

 14

 tetradecane

C14H30

 15

 pentadecane

C15H32

 20

 eicosane

C20H42

 21

 heneicosane

C21H44

 22

 docosane

C22H46

 23

 tricosane

C23H48

 30

 triacontane

  C30H62

 31

 hentriacontane

  C31H64

 32

 dotriacontane

  C32H66

 40

 tetracontane

  C40H82

 50

 pentacontane

  C50H120

 60

 hexacontane

  C60H122

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Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Carbons

A Primary Carbon (1') has
one substituent on carbon:

 

 

A Secondary Carbon (2') has
two substituents on carbon:

 

 

A Tertiary Carbon (3') has
three substituents on carbon:

 

 

A Quaternary Carbon has
four substituents on carbon:

 

 

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Common Functional Groups

Name of Functional Group

 Structure

Alkane C-H and C-C Bonds
Alkene (Olefin)
Alkyne (acetylenes)
Arene (Aromatic ring)
Haloakane (Alkyl Halide)


X= halogen , i.e. F, Cl, Br, I

Alcohol
Ether
Aldehyde
Ketone
Carboxylic Acid
Ester
Acid Halide
X= halogen , i.e. F, Cl, Br, I
Anhydride
Amide
Amine

 

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